• <var id="lvoaz"></var>
      1. <output id="lvoaz"></output>
          ovs-vswitchd(8)               Open vSwitch Manual              ovs-vswitchd(8)
          
          
          
          NAME
                 ovs-vswitchd - Open vSwitch daemon
          
          SYNOPSIS
                 ovs-vswitchd [database]
          
          DESCRIPTION
                 A  daemon that manages and controls any number of Open vSwitch switches
                 on the local machine.
          
                 The  database  argument  specifies   how   ovs-vswitchd   connects   to
                 ovsdb-server.   The default is unix://var/run/openvswitch/db.sock.  The
                 following forms are accepted:
          
                 ssl:ip:port
                        The specified SSL port on the host at the given ip,  which  must
                        be  expressed  as an IP address (not a DNS name) in IPv4 or IPv6
                        address format.  If ip is an IPv6 address,  then  wrap  ip  with
                        square   brackets,  e.g.:  ssl:[::1]:6640.   The  --private-key,
                        --certificate, and --ca-cert options  are  mandatory  when  this
                        form is used.
          
                 tcp:ip:port
                        Connect  to  the  given  TCP port on ip, where ip can be IPv4 or
                        IPv6 address. If ip is an IPv6 address, then wrap ip with square
                        brackets, e.g.: tcp:[::1]:6640.
          
                 unix:file
                        On POSIX, connect to the Unix domain server socket named file.
          
                        On Windows, connect to a localhost TCP port whose value is writ‐
                        ten in file.
          
                 pssl:port[:ip]
                        Listen on the given SSL port for a connection.  By default, con‐
                        nections  are  not bound to a particular local IP address and it
                        listens only on IPv4 (but not IPv6) addresses, but specifying ip
                        limits  connections  to  those from the given ip, either IPv4 or
                        IPv6 address.  If ip is an  IPv6  address,  then  wrap  ip  with
                        square  brackets,  e.g.:  pssl:6640:[::1].   The  --private-key,
                        --certificate, and --ca-cert options  are  mandatory  when  this
                        form is used.
          
                 ptcp:port[:ip]
                        Listen on the given TCP port for a connection.  By default, con‐
                        nections are not bound to a particular local IP address  and  it
                        listens  only  on  IPv4  (but not IPv6) addresses, but ip may be
                        specified to listen only for connections to the given ip, either
                        IPv4  or  IPv6  address.  If ip is an IPv6 address, then wrap ip
                        with square brackets, e.g.: ptcp:6640:[::1].
          
                 punix:file
                        On POSIX, listen on the Unix domain server socket named file for
                        a connection.
          
                        On Windows, listen on a kernel chosen TCP port on the localhost.
                        The kernel chosen TCP port value is written in file.
          
                 ovs-vswitchd retrieves its configuration from database at startup.   It
                 sets  up Open vSwitch datapaths and then operates switching across each
                 bridge described in its configuration files.  As the database  changes,
                 ovs-vswitchd automatically updates its configuration to match.
          
                 ovs-vswitchd  switches may be configured with any of the following fea‐
                 tures:
          
                 ·      L2 switching with MAC learning.
          
                 ·      NIC bonding with automatic fail-over  and  source  MAC-based  TX
                        load balancing ("SLB").
          
                 ·      802.1Q VLAN support.
          
                 ·      Port mirroring, with optional VLAN tagging.
          
                 ·      NetFlow v5 flow logging.
          
                 ·      sFlow(R) monitoring.
          
                 ·      Connectivity to an external OpenFlow controller, such as NOX.
          
                 Only a single instance of ovs-vswitchd is intended to run at a time.  A
                 single ovs-vswitchd can manage any number of switch  instances,  up  to
                 the maximum number of supported Open vSwitch datapaths.
          
                 ovs-vswitchd  does  all  the necessary management of Open vSwitch data‐
                 paths itself.  Thus, external tools, such ovs-dpctl(8), are not  needed
                 for  managing datapaths in conjunction with ovs-vswitchd, and their use
                 to modify datapaths when ovs-vswitchd is running can interfere with its
                 operation.  (ovs-dpctl may still be useful for diagnostics.)
          
                 An  Open vSwitch datapath kernel module must be loaded for ovs-vswitchd
                 to be useful.  Please refer to the INSTALL.Linux file included  in  the
                 Open vSwitch distribution for instructions on how to build and load the
                 Open vSwitch kernel module.
          
          OPTIONS
                 --mlockall
                        Causes ovs-vswitchd to call the mlockall() function, to  attempt
                        to  lock all of its process memory into physical RAM, preventing
                        the kernel from paging any of its memory to disk.  This helps to
                        avoid networking interruptions due to system memory pressure.
          
                        Some systems do not support mlockall() at all, and other systems
                        only allow privileged users, such as the superuser, to  use  it.
                        ovs-vswitchd emits a log message if mlockall() is unavailable or
                        unsuccessful.
          
             DPDK Options
                 --dpdk Initialize ovs-vswitchd DPDK datapath.   Refer  to  INSTALL.DPDK
                        for details.
          
             Daemon Options
                 The following options are valid on POSIX based platforms.
          
                 --pidfile[=pidfile]
                        Causes a file (by default, ovs-vswitchd.pid) to be created indi‐
                        cating the PID of the running process.  If the pidfile  argument
                        is  not  specified,  or  if it does not begin with /, then it is
                        created in //var/run/openvswitch.
          
                        If --pidfile is not specified, no pidfile is created.
          
                 --overwrite-pidfile
                        By default, when --pidfile is specified and the  specified  pid‐
                        file  already  exists  and  is  locked  by  a  running  process,
                        ovs-vswitchd refuses to start.  Specify  --overwrite-pidfile  to
                        cause it to instead overwrite the pidfile.
          
                        When --pidfile is not specified, this option has no effect.
          
                 --detach
                        Runs  ovs-vswitchd  as a background process.  The process forks,
                        and in the child it starts a new session,  closes  the  standard
                        file descriptors (which has the side effect of disabling logging
                        to the console), and changes its current directory to  the  root
                        (unless --no-chdir is specified).  After the child completes its
                        initialization, the parent exits.   ovs-vswitchd  detaches  only
                        after  it  has  connected to the database, retrieved the initial
                        configuration, and set up that configuration.
          
                 --monitor
                        Creates an additional process to monitor the  ovs-vswitchd  dae‐
                        mon.   If  the daemon dies due to a signal that indicates a pro‐
                        gramming error (SIGABRT, SIGALRM, SIGBUS, SIGFPE,  SIGILL,  SIG
                        PIPE,  SIGSEGV,  SIGXCPU,  or  SIGXFSZ) then the monitor process
                        starts a new copy of it.   If  the  daemon  dies  or  exits  for
                        another reason, the monitor process exits.
          
                        This  option  is  normally used with --detach, but it also func‐
                        tions without it.
          
                 --no-chdir
                        By default, when --detach is specified, ovs-vswitchd changes its
                        current  working  directory  to  the  root  directory  after  it
                        detaches.  Otherwise, invoking ovs-vswitchd  from  a  carelessly
                        chosen directory would prevent the administrator from unmounting
                        the file system that holds that directory.
          
                        Specifying  --no-chdir  suppresses  this  behavior,   preventing
                        ovs-vswitchd  from changing its current working directory.  This
                        may be useful for collecting core  files,  since  it  is  common
                        behavior  to write core dumps into the current working directory
                        and the root directory is not a good directory to use.
          
                        This option has no effect when --detach is not specified.
          
                 --user Causes ovs-vswitchd to run as  a  different  user  specified  in
                        "user:group",  thus  dropping most of the root privileges. Short
                        forms "user" and ":group" are also allowed, with current user or
                        group are assumed respectively. Only daemons started by the root
                        user accepts this argument.
          
                        On   Linux,   daemons   will   be   granted   CAP_IPC_LOCK   and
                        CAP_NET_BIND_SERVICES  before  dropping root privileges. Daemons
                        interact with datapath, such as ovs-vswitchd,  will  be  granted
                        two    additional   capabilities,   namely   CAP_NET_ADMIN   and
                        CAP_NET_RAW. The capability change will apply even if  new  user
                        is "root".
          
                        On Windows, this option is not currently supported. For security
                        reasons, specifying this option will cause  the  daemon  process
                        not to start.
          
             Service Options
                 The following options are valid only on Windows platform.
          
                 --service
                        Causes  ovs-vswitchd  to run as a service in the background. The
                        service should already have been created through external  tools
                        like SC.exe.
          
                 --service-monitor
                        Causes the ovs-vswitchd service to be automatically restarted by
                        the Windows services manager if the service dies  or  exits  for
                        unexpected reasons.
          
                        When --service is not specified, this option has no effect.
          
             Public Key Infrastructure Options
                 -p privkey.pem
                 --private-key=privkey.pem
                        Specifies  a  PEM  file  containing  the  private  key  used  as
                        ovs-vswitchd's identity for outgoing SSL connections.
          
                 -c cert.pem
                 --certificate=cert.pem
                        Specifies a PEM file containing a certificate that certifies the
                        private  key specified on -p or --private-key to be trustworthy.
                        The certificate must be signed by the certificate authority (CA)
                        that the peer in SSL connections will use to verify it.
          
                 -C cacert.pem
                 --ca-cert=cacert.pem
                        Specifies   a  PEM  file  containing  the  CA  certificate  that
                        ovs-vswitchd should use to verify certificates presented  to  it
                        by  SSL peers.  (This may be the same certificate that SSL peers
                        use to verify the certificate specified on -c or  --certificate,
                        or  it  may  be  a different one, depending on the PKI design in
                        use.)
          
                 -C none
                 --ca-cert=none
                        Disables verification of certificates presented  by  SSL  peers.
                        This  introduces a security risk, because it means that certifi‐
                        cates cannot be verified to be those of known trusted hosts.
          
                 --bootstrap-ca-cert=cacert.pem
                        When cacert.pem exists, this option has the same effect as -C or
                        --ca-cert.  If it does not exist, then ovs-vswitchd will attempt
                        to obtain the CA certificate from the SSL peer on its first  SSL
                        connection and save it to the named PEM file.  If it is success‐
                        ful, it will immediately drop the connection and reconnect,  and
                        from then on all SSL connections must be authenticated by a cer‐
                        tificate signed by the CA certificate thus obtained.
          
                        This option exposes the SSL connection  to  a  man-in-the-middle
                        attack  obtaining the initial CA certificate, but it may be use‐
                        ful for bootstrapping.
          
                        This option is only useful if the SSL peer sends its CA certifi‐
                        cate  as  part  of  the SSL certificate chain.  The SSL protocol
                        does not require the server to send the CA certificate.
          
                        This option is mutually exclusive with -C and --ca-cert.
          
             Logging Options
                 -v[spec]
                 --verbose=[spec]
                        Sets logging levels.  Without any spec, sets the log  level  for
                        every  module and destination to dbg.  Otherwise, spec is a list
                        of words separated by spaces or commas or colons, up to one from
                        each category below:
          
                        ·      A  valid  module name, as displayed by the vlog/list com‐
                               mand on ovs-appctl(8), limits the log level change to the
                               specified module.
          
                        ·      syslog,  console,  or file, to limit the log level change
                               to only to the system log, to the console, or to a  file,
                               respectively.   (If  --detach  is specified, ovs-vswitchd
                               closes its standard file descriptors, so logging  to  the
                               console will have no effect.)
          
                               On  Windows platform, syslog is accepted as a word and is
                               only useful along with the  --syslog-target  option  (the
                               word has no effect otherwise).
          
                        ·      off,  emer,  err,  warn, info, or dbg, to control the log
                               level.  Messages of the given severity or higher will  be
                               logged,  and  messages of lower severity will be filtered
                               out.  off filters out all  messages.   See  ovs-appctl(8)
                               for a definition of each log level.
          
                        Case is not significant within spec.
          
                        Regardless  of  the  log  levels set for file, logging to a file
                        will not take place unless --log-file  is  also  specified  (see
                        below).
          
                        For compatibility with older versions of OVS, any is accepted as
                        a word but has no effect.
          
                 -v
                 --verbose
                        Sets the maximum logging verbosity level, equivalent  to  --ver
                        bose=dbg.
          
                 -vPATTERN:destination:pattern
                 --verbose=PATTERN:destination:pattern
                        Sets  the  log  pattern  for  destination  to pattern.  Refer to
                        ovs-appctl(8) for a description of the valid syntax for pattern.
          
                 -vFACILITY:facility
                 --verbose=FACILITY:facility
                        Sets the RFC5424 facility of the log message.  facility  can  be
                        one  of kern, user, mail, daemon, auth, syslog, lpr, news, uucp,
                        clock, ftp, ntp, audit, alert, clock2, local0,  local1,  local2,
                        local3,  local4, local5, local6 or local7. If this option is not
                        specified, daemon is used as the default for  the  local  system
                        syslog  and local0 is used while sending a message to the target
                        provided via the --syslog-target option.
          
                 --log-file[=file]
                        Enables logging to a file.  If file is  specified,  then  it  is
                        used  as  the exact name for the log file.  The default log file
                        name   used   if   file   is    omitted    is    //var/log/open
                        vswitch/ovs-vswitchd.log.
          
                 --syslog-target=host:port
                        Send  syslog  messages  to  UDP port on host, in addition to the
                        system syslog.  The host must be a numerical IP address,  not  a
                        hostname.
          
                 --syslog-method=method
                        Specify method how syslog messages should be sent to syslog dae‐
                        mon.  Following forms are supported:
          
                        ·      libc, use libc syslog() function.  This  is  the  default
                               behavior.   Downside  of  using this options is that libc
                               adds fixed prefix to every message before it is  actually
                               sent  to  the  syslog  daemon  over  /dev/log UNIX domain
                               socket.
          
                        ·      unix:file, use UNIX domain socket directly.  It is possi‐
                               ble to specify arbitrary message format with this option.
                               However, rsyslogd 8.9 and older versions use  hard  coded
                               parser  function  anyway  that  limits UNIX domain socket
                               use.  If you want to use arbitrary  message  format  with
                               older rsyslogd versions, then use UDP socket to localhost
                               IP address instead.
          
                        ·      udp:ip:port, use UDP socket.  With this method it is pos‐
                               sible  to  use  arbitrary  message format also with older
                               rsyslogd.  When sending syslog messages over  UDP  socket
                               extra  precaution  needs  to  be  taken into account, for
                               example, syslog daemon needs to be configured  to  listen
                               on  the  specified  UDP  port,  accidental iptables rules
                               could be interfering with local syslog traffic and  there
                               are  some security considerations that apply to UDP sock‐
                               ets, but do not apply to UNIX domain sockets.
          
             Other Options
                 --unixctl=socket
                        Sets the name of the control socket on which  ovs-vswitchd  lis‐
                        tens  for  runtime  management  commands (see RUNTIME MANAGEMENT
                        COMMANDS, below).  If socket does not begin with /, it is inter‐
                        preted  as  relative  to //var/run/openvswitch.  If --unixctl is
                        not  used  at  all,  the  default  socket   is   //var/run/open
                        vswitch/ovs-vswitchd.pid.ctl,   where   pid   is  ovs-vswitchd's
                        process ID.
          
                        On Windows, uses a kernel chosen TCP port on  the  localhost  to
                        listen  for  runtime management commands.  The kernel chosen TCP
                        port value is written in a file whose absolute path  is  pointed
                        by  socket. If --unixctl is not used at all, the file is created
                        as ovs-vswitchd.ctl in the configured OVS_RUNDIR directory.
          
                        Specifying none for socket disables the control socket feature.
          
                 -h
                 --help Prints a brief help message to the console.
          
                 -V
                 --version
                        Prints version information to the console.
          
          RUNTIME MANAGEMENT COMMANDS
                 ovs-appctl(8) can send commands to a running ovs-vswitchd process.  The
                 currently supported commands are described below.  The command descrip‐
                 tions assume an understanding of how to configure Open vSwitch.
          
             GENERAL COMMANDS
                 exit   Causes ovs-vswitchd to gracefully terminate.
          
                 qos/show interface
                        Queries the kernel for Quality of Service configuration and sta‐
                        tistics associated with the given interface.
          
                 bfd/show [interface]
                        Displays  detailed  information  about  Bidirectional Forwarding
                        Detection configured on interface.  If interface is  not  speci‐
                        fied,  then  displays  detailed information about all interfaces
                        with BFD enabled.
          
                 bfd/set-forwarding [interface] status
                        Force the fault status of the BFD module on  interface  (or  all
                        interfaces  if  none  is  given)  to  be  status.  status can be
                        "true", "false", or  "normal"  which  reverts  to  the  standard
                        behavior.
          
                 cfm/show [interface]
                        Displays  detailed  information about Connectivity Fault Manage‐
                        ment configured on interface.  If interface  is  not  specified,
                        then displays detailed information about all interfaces with CFM
                        enabled.
          
                 cfm/set-fault [interface] status
                        Force the fault status of the CFM module on  interface  (or  all
                        interfaces  if  none  is  given)  to  be  status.  status can be
                        "true", "false", or  "normal"  which  reverts  to  the  standard
                        behavior.
          
                 stp/tcn [bridge]
                        Forces  a  topology  change event on bridge if it's running STP.
                        This may cause it to send Topology Change Notifications  to  its
                        peers and flush its MAC table..  If no bridge is given, forces a
                        topology change event on all bridges.
          
             BRIDGE COMMANDS
                 These commands manage bridges.
          
                 fdb/flush [bridge]
                        Flushes bridge MAC  address  learning  table,  or  all  learning
                        tables if no bridge is given.
          
                 fdb/show bridge
                        Lists  each  MAC  address/VLAN  pair  learned  by  the specified
                        bridge, along with the port on which it was learned and the  age
                        of the entry, in seconds.
          
                 mdb/flush [bridge]
                        Flushes  bridge multicast snooping table, or all snooping tables
                        if no bridge is given.
          
                 mdb/show bridge
                        Lists each multicast group/VLAN pair learned  by  the  specified
                        bridge,  along with the port on which it was learned and the age
                        of the entry, in seconds.
          
                 bridge/reconnect [bridge]
                        Makes bridge drop all of its OpenFlow controller connections and
                        reconnect.   If  bridge  is not specified, then all bridges drop
                        their controller connections and reconnect.
          
                        This command might be useful for debugging  OpenFlow  controller
                        issues.
          
                 bridge/dump-flows bridge
                        Lists  all  flows  in bridge, including those normally hidden to
                        commands such as ovs-ofctl dump-flows.  Flows set up  by  mecha‐
                        nisms  such as in-band control and fail-open are hidden from the
                        controller since it is not allowed to modify or override them.
          
             BOND COMMANDS
                 These commands manage bonded ports on an Open  vSwitch's  bridges.   To
                 understand  some  of  these  commands,  it is important to understand a
                 detail of the bonding implementation called ``source  load  balancing''
                 (SLB).   Instead  of  directly  assigning  Ethernet source addresses to
                 slaves, the bonding implementation computes a  function  that  maps  an
                 48-bit  Ethernet  source  addresses into an 8-bit value (a ``MAC hash''
                 value).  All of the Ethernet addresses that map to a single 8-bit value
                 are then assigned to a single slave.
          
                 bond/list
                        Lists all of the bonds, and their slaves, on each bridge.
          
                 bond/show [port]
                        Lists  all of the bond-specific information (updelay, downdelay,
                        time until the next rebalance) about the given bonded  port,  or
                        all  bonded  ports  if no port is given.  Also lists information
                        about each slave: whether it is enabled or disabled, the time to
                        completion  of  an  updelay  or downdelay if one is in progress,
                        whether it is the active  slave,  the  hashes  assigned  to  the
                        slave.   Any  LACP information related to this bond may be found
                        using the lacp/show command.
          
                 bond/migrate port hash slave
                        Only valid for SLB bonds.  Assigns a given MAC  hash  to  a  new
                        slave.   port  specifies  the bond port, hash the MAC hash to be
                        migrated (as a decimal number between 0 and 255), and slave  the
                        new slave to be assigned.
          
                        The reassignment is not permanent: rebalancing or fail-over will
                        cause the MAC hash to be shifted to a new  slave  in  the  usual
                        manner.
          
                        A MAC hash cannot be migrated to a disabled slave.
          
                 bond/set-active-slave port slave
                        Sets slave as the active slave on port.  slave must currently be
                        enabled.
          
                        The setting is  not  permanent:  a  new  active  slave  will  be
                        selected if slave becomes disabled.
          
                 bond/enable-slave port slave
                 bond/disable-slave port slave
                        Enables (or disables) slave on the given bond port, skipping any
                        updelay (or downdelay).
          
                        This setting is not permanent: it persists only until  the  car‐
                        rier status of slave changes.
          
                 bond/hash mac [vlan] [basis]
                        Returns the hash value which would be used for mac with vlan and
                        basis if specified.
          
                 lacp/show [port]
                        Lists all of the LACP related information about the given  port:
                        active or passive, aggregation key, system id, and system prior‐
                        ity.  Also lists information about each  slave:  whether  it  is
                        enabled or disabled, whether it is attached or detached, port id
                        and priority, actor information, and  partner  information.   If
                        port  is not specified, then displays detailed information about
                        all interfaces with CFM enabled.
          
             DPCTL DATAPATH DEBUGGING COMMANDS
                 The primary way to configure ovs-vswitchd is through the  Open  vSwitch
                 database,  e.g. using ovs-vsctl(8).  These commands provide a debugging
                 interface for managing datapaths.  They  implement  the  same  features
                 (and syntax) as ovs-dpctl(8).  Unlike ovs-dpctl(8), these commands work
                 with datapaths that are integrated into ovs-vswitchd (e.g.  the  netdev
                 datapath type).
          
                 dpctl/add-dp dp [netdev[,option]...]
                        Creates datapath dp, with a local port also named dp.  This will
                        fail if a network device dp already exists.
          
                        If netdevs are specified, ovs-vswitchd  adds  them  to  the  new
                        datapath, just as if add-if was specified.
          
                 dpctl/del-dp dp
                        Deletes  datapath  dp.   If  dp  is  associated with any network
                        devices, they are automatically removed.
          
                 dpctl/add-if dp netdev[,option]...
                        Adds each netdev to the set of network devices datapath dp moni‐
                        tors,  where  dp is the name of an existing datapath, and netdev
                        is the name of one of the host's  network  devices,  e.g.  eth0.
                        Once a network device has been added to a datapath, the datapath
                        has complete ownership of the network device's traffic  and  the
                        network device appears silent to the rest of the system.
          
                        A  netdev  may be followed by a comma-separated list of options.
                        The following options are currently supported:
          
                        type=type
                               Specifies the type of port to add.  The default  type  is
                               system.
          
                        port_no=port
                               Requests  a specific port number within the datapath.  If
                               this option is not specified then one will  be  automati‐
                               cally assigned.
          
                        key=value
                               Adds an arbitrary key-value option to the port's configu‐
                               ration.
          
                        ovs-vswitchd.conf.db(5) documents the available port  types  and
                        options.
          
                 dpctl/set-if dp port[,option]...
                        Reconfigures  each  port  in  dp as specified.  An option of the
                        form key=value adds the specified key-value option to  the  port
                        or  overrides  an  existing  key's value.  An option of the form
                        key=, that is, without a value, deletes the key-value named key.
                        The  type  and  port number of a port cannot be changed, so type
                        and port_no are only allowed if they match the existing configu‐
                        ration.
          
                 dpctl/del-if dp netdev...
                        Removes each netdev from the list of network devices datapath dp
                        monitors.
          
                 dpctl/dump-dps
                        Prints the name of each configured datapath on a separate line.
          
                 dpctl/show [-s | --statistics] [dp...]
                        Prints a summary of configured datapaths, including their  data‐
                        path  numbers  and  a  list of ports connected to each datapath.
                        (The local port is identified as port 0.)  If -s or --statistics
                        is specified, then packet and byte counters are also printed for
                        each port.
          
                        The datapath numbers consists of flow stats and mega  flow  mask
                        stats.
          
                        The  "lookups"  row  displays three stats related to flow lookup
                        triggered by processing incoming packets in the datapath.  "hit"
                        displays number of packets matches existing flows. "missed" dis‐
                        plays the number of packets not matching any existing  flow  and
                        require  user space processing.  "lost" displays number of pack‐
                        ets destined for user space  process  but  subsequently  dropped
                        before reaching userspace. The sum of "hit" and "miss" equals to
                        the total number of packets datapath processed.
          
                        The "flows" row displays the number of flows in datapath.
          
                        The "masks" row displays the mega flow mask stats. This  row  is
                        omitted  for datapath not implementing mega flow. "hit" displays
                        the total number of masks visited for matching incoming packets.
                        "total" displays number of masks in the datapath. "hit/pkt" dis‐
                        plays the average number of masks visited per packet; the  ratio
                        between "hit" and total number of packets processed by the data‐
                        path".
          
                        If one or more datapaths  are  specified,  information  on  only
                        those datapaths are displayed.  Otherwise, ovs-vswitchd displays
                        information about all configured datapaths.
          
             DATAPATH FLOW TABLE DEBUGGING COMMANDS
                 The following commands are primarily useful for debugging Open vSwitch.
                 The  flow  table entries (both matches and actions) that they work with
                 are not OpenFlow flow entries.  Instead, they are different and consid‐
                 erably simpler flows maintained by the Open vSwitch kernel module.  Use
                 ovs-ofctl(8), instead, to work with OpenFlow flow entries.
          
                 The dp argument to each of these commands is optional when exactly  one
                 datapath exists, in which case that datapath is the default.  When mul‐
                 tiple datapaths exist, then a datapath name is required.
          
                 dpctl/dump-flows [-m | --more] [dp] [filter=filter]
                        Prints to the console all flow entries in datapath dp's flow ta‐
                        ble.   Without  -m  or  --more, output omits match fields that a
                        flow wildcards entirely; with -m or --more, output includes  all
                        wildcarded fields.
          
                        If  filter=filter  is  specified,  only  displays the flows that
                        match the filter. filter is a flow in the form similiar to  that
                        accepted  by  ovs-ofctl(8)'s  add-flow  command. (This is not an
                        OpenFlow flow: besides  other  differences,  it  never  contains
                        wildcards.)   The  filter  is  also  useful  to match wildcarded
                        fields   in   the   datapath   flow.   As   an   example,   fil
                        ter='tcp,tp_src=100'  will  match  the  datapath flow containing
                        'tcp(src=80/0xff00,dst=8080/0xff)'.
          
                 dpctl/add-flow [dp] flow actions
          
                 dpctl/mod-flow [--clear] [--may-create] [-s | --statistics]  [dp]  flow
                 actions
                        Adds  or  modifies a flow in dp's flow table that, when a packet
                        matching flow arrives, causes actions to be executed.
          
                        The add-flow command succeeds only  if  flow  does  not  already
                        exist  in  dp.  Contrariwise, mod-flow without --may-create only
                        modifies the actions for an existing flow.   With  --may-create,
                        mod-flow will add a new flow or modify an existing one.
          
                        If  -s  or  --statistics  is specified, then mod-flow prints the
                        modified flow's statistics.  A flow's statistics are the  number
                        of  packets  and  bytes  that  have passed through the flow, the
                        elapsed time since the flow last processed a packet  (if  ever),
                        and (for TCP flows) the union of the TCP flags processed through
                        the flow.
          
                        With --clear, mod-flow zeros out  the  flow's  statistics.   The
                        statistics  printed  if -s or --statistics is also specified are
                        those from just before clearing the statistics.
          
                 dpctl/del-flow [-s | --statistics] [dp] flow
                        Deletes the flow from dp's flow table that matches flow.  If  -s
                        or  --statistics  is specified, then del-flow prints the deleted
                        flow's statistics.
          
                 dpctl/get-flow [dp] ufid:ufid
                        Fetches the flow from dp's flow  table  with  unique  identifier
                        ufid.   ufid  must  be  specified  as a string of 32 hexadecimal
                        characters.
          
                 dpctl/del-flows [dp]
                        Deletes all flow entries from datapath dp's flow table.
          
             CONNECTION TRACKING TABLE DEBUGGING COMMANDS
                 The following commands are primarily useful for debugging  the  connec‐
                 tion tracking entries in the datapath.
          
                 The  dp argument to each of these commands is optional when exactly one
                 datapath exists, in which case that datapath is the default.  When mul‐
                 tiple datapaths exist, then a datapath name is required.
          
                 N.B.(Linux  specific): the system datapaths (i.e. the Linux kernel mod‐
                 ule Open vSwitch datapaths) share a single  connection  tracking  table
                 (which is also used by other kernel subsystems, such as iptables, nfta‐
                 bles and the regular host stack).  Therefore, the following commands do
                 not apply specifically to one datapath.
          
                 dpctl/dump-conntrack [-m | --more] [-s | --statistics] [dp] [zone=zone]
                        Prints  to the console all the connection entries in the tracker
                        used by dp.  If zone=zone is specified, only shows  the  connec‐
                        tions  in  zone.   With  --more,  some  implementation  specific
                        details are included. With --statistics timeouts and  timestamps
                        are added to the output.
          
                 dpctl/flush-conntrack [dp] [zone=zone]
                        Flushes  all  the  connection entries in the tracker used by dp.
                        If zone=zone is specified, only flushes the connections in zone.
          
             DPIF-NETDEV COMMANDS
                 These commands are used to expose internal information (mostly  statis‐
                 tics)  about  the  ``dpif-netdev'' userspace datapath. If there is only
                 one datapath (as is often the case, unless dpctl/ commands  are  used),
                 the dp argument can be omitted.
          
                 dpif-netdev/pmd-stats-show [dp]
                        Shows performance statistics for each pmd thread of the datapath
                        dp.  The special thread ``main'' sums up the statistics of every
                        non  pmd  thread.   The sum of ``emc hits'', ``masked hits'' and
                        ``miss'' is the number of  packets  received  by  the  datapath.
                        Cycles  are  counted  using  the TSC or similar facilities (when
                        available on the platform).  To reset these counters  use  dpif-
                        netdev/pmd-stats-clear. The duration of one cycle depends on the
                        measuring infrastructure.
          
                 dpif-netdev/pmd-stats-clear [dp]
                        Resets to zero the per pmd thread performance numbers  shown  by
                        the dpif-netdev/pmd-stats-show command.  It will NOT reset data‐
                        path or bridge statistics, only the values shown  by  the  above
                        command.
          
             DATAPATH DEBUGGING COMMANDS
                 These  commands  query  and  modify datapaths.  They are are similar to
                 ovs-dpctl(8) commands.  dpif/show  has  the  additional  functionality,
                 beyond  dpctl/show  of  printing OpenFlow port numbers.  The other com‐
                 mands are redundant and will be removed in a future release.
          
                 dpif/dump-dps
                        Prints the name of each configured datapath on a separate line.
          
                 dpif/show
                        Prints a summary of configured datapaths,  including  statistics
                        and  a  list  of connected ports.  The port information includes
                        the OpenFlow port number, datapath port number,  and  the  type.
                        (The local port is identified as OpenFlow port 65534.)
          
                 dpif/dump-flows [-m] dp
                        Prints to the console all flow entries in datapath dp's flow ta‐
                        ble. Without -m, output omits match fields that a flow wildcards
                        entirely; with -m output includes all wildcarded fields.
          
                        This  command  is  primarily  useful for debugging Open vSwitch.
                        The flow table entries that it displays are  not  OpenFlow  flow
                        entries.   Instead,  they are different and considerably simpler
                        flows maintained by the datapath module.  If you wish to see the
                        OpenFlow flow entries, use ovs-ofctl dump-flows.
          
                 dpif/del-flows dp
                        Deletes  all  flow  entries  from  datapath  dp's flow table and
                        underlying datapath implementation (e.g., kernel  datapath  mod‐
                        ule).
          
                        This command is primarily useful for debugging Open vSwitch.  As
                        discussed in dpif/dump-flows, these  entries  are  not  OpenFlow
                        flow entries.
          
             OFPROTO COMMANDS
                 These  commands  manage the core OpenFlow switch implementation (called
                 ofproto).
          
                 ofproto/list
                        Lists the names of the running ofproto instances.  These are the
                        names that may be used on ofproto/trace.
          
                 ofproto/trace [dpname] odp_flow [-generate | packet]
                 ofproto/trace bridge br_flow [-generate | packet]
                 ofproto/trace-packet-out  [-consistent]  [dpname] odp_flow [-generate |
                 packet] actions
                 ofproto/trace-packet-out  [-consistent]  bridge  br_flow  [-generate  |
                 packet] actions
                        Traces  the  path  of  an  imaginary  packet  through switch and
                        reports the path that it took.  The  initial  treatment  of  the
                        packet varies based on the command:
          
                        ·      ofproto/trace  looks  the  packet up in the OpenFlow flow
                               table, as if the packet had arrived on an OpenFlow port.
          
                        ·      ofproto/trace-packet-out applies the  specified  OpenFlow
                               actions,  as  if  the  packet, flow, and actions had been
                               specified in an OpenFlow ``packet-out'' request.
          
                        The packet's headers (e.g. source and destination) and  metadata
                        (e.g. input port), together called its ``flow,'' are usually all
                        that matter for the purpose of tracing a packet.  You can  spec‐
                        ify the flow in the following ways:
          
                        dpname odp_flow
                               odp_flow  is a flow in the form printed by ovs-dpctl(8)'s
                               dump-flows command.  If all of your bridges have the same
                               type, which is the common case, then you can omit dpname,
                               but if you have bridges of  different  types  (say,  both
                               ovs-netdev  and  ovs-system),  then you need to specify a
                               dpname to disambiguate.
          
                        bridge br_flow
                               br_flow is a flow in the form similar to that accepted by
                               ovs-ofctl(8)'s  add-flow  command.  (This is not an Open‐
                               Flow flow: besides other differences, it  never  contains
                               wildcards.)   bridge  names  of  the bridge through which
                               br_flow should be traced.
          
                        Most commonly, one specifies only a flow, using one of the forms
                        above,  but sometimes one might need to specify an actual packet
                        instead of just a flow:
          
                        Side effects.
                               Some actions have side effects.  For example, the  normal
                               action  can  update the MAC learning table, and the learn
                               action can change OpenFlow tables.   The  trace  commands
                               only perform side effects when a packet is specified.  If
                               you want side effects to take place, then you must supply
                               a packet.
          
                               (Output  actions  are obviously side effects too, but the
                               trace commands never execute them, even when  one  speci‐
                               fies a packet.)
          
                        Incomplete information.
                               Most  of the time, Open vSwitch can figure out everything
                               about the path of a packet using just the  flow,  but  in
                               some  special  circumstances it needs to look at parts of
                               the packet that are not included in the flow.  When  this
                               is the case, and you do not supply a packet, then a trace
                               command will tell you it needs a packet.
          
                        If you wish to include a packet as part of  a  trace  operation,
                        there are two ways to do it:
          
                        -generate
                               This  option,  added to one of the ways to specify a flow
                               already described, causes Open vSwitch to internally gen‐
                               erate  a  packet  with the flow described and then to use
                               that packet.  If your goal is to  execute  side  effects,
                               then -generate is the easiest way to do it, but -generate
                               is not a good way  to  fill  in  incomplete  information,
                               because  it  generates  packets  based  on  only the flow
                               information, which means that the packets really  do  not
                               have any more information than the flow.
          
                        packet This  form  supplies  an explicit packet as a sequence of
                               hex digits.  An Ethernet frame is at least 14 bytes long,
                               so  there  must be at least 28 hex digits.  Obviously, it
                               is inconvenient to type in the hex digits by hand, so the
                               ovs-pcap(1) and ovs-tcpundump(1) utilities provide easier
                               ways.
          
                               With this form, packet  headers  are  extracted  directly
                               from  packet,  so  the odp_flow or br_flow should specify
                               only metadata. The metadata can be:
          
                               skb_priority
                                      Packet QoS priority.
          
                               pkt_mark
                                      Mark of the packet.
          
                               ct_state
                                      Connection state of the packet.
          
                               ct_zone
                                      Connection tracking zone for packet.
          
                               ct_mark
                                      Connection mark of the packet.
          
                               ct_label
                                      Connection label of the packet.
          
                               tun_id The tunnel ID on which the packet arrived.
          
                               in_port
                                      The port on which the packet arrived.
          
                        The in_port value is kernel datapath port number for  the  first
                        format  and OpenFlow port number for the second format. The num‐
                        bering of these two types of port usually differs and  there  is
                        no relationship.
          
                        ofproto-trace-packet-out   accepts   an  additional  -consistent
                        option.  With this option specified, the command rejects actions
                        that are inconsistent with the specified packet.  (An example of
                        an inconsistency is attempting to strip  the  VLAN  tag  from  a
                        packet  that  does  not  have a VLAN tag.)  Open vSwitch ignores
                        most forms of inconsistency in OpenFlow 1.0 and  rejects  incon‐
                        sistencies  in later versions of OpenFlow.  The option is neces‐
                        sary because the command does not ordinarily imply a  particular
                        OpenFlow  version.  One exception is that, when actions includes
                        an action that only OpenFlow 1.1 and  later  supports  (such  as
                        push_vlan), -consistent is automatically enabled.
          
                 ofproto/self-check [switch]
                        Runs an internal consistency check on switch, if specified, oth‐
                        erwise on all ofproto instances, and responds with a brief  sum‐
                        mary  of  the  results.  If the summary reports any errors, then
                        the Open vSwitch logs should contain more detailed  information.
                        Please  pass  along  errors reported by this command to the Open
                        vSwitch developers as bugs.
          
             VLOG COMMANDS
                 These commands manage ovs-vswitchd's logging settings.
          
                 vlog/set [spec]
                        Sets logging levels.  Without any spec, sets the log  level  for
                        every  module and destination to dbg.  Otherwise, spec is a list
                        of words separated by spaces or commas or colons, up to one from
                        each category below:
          
                        ·      A  valid  module name, as displayed by the vlog/list com‐
                               mand on ovs-appctl(8), limits the log level change to the
                               specified module.
          
                        ·      syslog,  console,  or file, to limit the log level change
                               to only to the system log, to the console, or to a  file,
                               respectively.
          
                               On  Windows platform, syslog is accepted as a word and is
                               only useful along with the  --syslog-target  option  (the
                               word has no effect otherwise).
          
                        ·      off,  emer,  err,  warn, info, or dbg, to control the log
                               level.  Messages of the given severity or higher will  be
                               logged,  and  messages of lower severity will be filtered
                               out.  off filters out all  messages.   See  ovs-appctl(8)
                               for a definition of each log level.
          
                        Case is not significant within spec.
          
                        Regardless  of  the  log  levels set for file, logging to a file
                        will not take place unless ovs-vswitchd  was  invoked  with  the
                        --log-file option.
          
                        For compatibility with older versions of OVS, any is accepted as
                        a word but has no effect.
          
                 vlog/set PATTERN:destination:pattern
                        Sets the log pattern  for  destination  to  pattern.   Refer  to
                        ovs-appctl(8) for a description of the valid syntax for pattern.
          
                 vlog/list
                        Lists the supported logging modules and their current levels.
          
                 vlog/list-pattern
                        Lists logging patterns used for each destination.
          
                 vlog/reopen
                        Causes  ovs-vswitchd to close and reopen its log file.  (This is
                        useful after rotating log files, to cause a new log file  to  be
                        used.)
          
                        This  has  no  effect  unless  ovs-vswitchd was invoked with the
                        --log-file option.
          
                 vlog/disable-rate-limit [module]...
                 vlog/enable-rate-limit [module]...
                        By default, ovs-vswitchd limits the rate at which  certain  mes‐
                        sages  can  be  logged.   When  a message would appear more fre‐
                        quently than the limit,  it  is  suppressed.   This  saves  disk
                        space,  makes  logs easier to read, and speeds up execution, but
                        occasionally troubleshooting requires more  detail.   Therefore,
                        vlog/disable-rate-limit allows rate limits to be disabled at the
                        level of an individual log module.  Specify one or  more  module
                        names, as displayed by the vlog/list command.  Specifying either
                        no module names at all or the keyword any disables  rate  limits
                        for every log module.
          
                        The  vlog/enable-rate-limit command, whose syntax is the same as
                        vlog/disable-rate-limit, can be used to re-enable a  rate  limit
                        that was previously disabled.
          
             MEMORY COMMANDS
                 These commands report memory usage.
          
                 memory/show
                        Displays  some  basic  statistics  about  ovs-vswitchd's  memory
                        usage.  ovs-vswitchd  also  logs  this  information  soon  after
                        startup and periodically as its memory consumption grows.
          
             COVERAGE COMMANDS
                 These commands manage ovs-vswitchd's ``coverage counters,'' which count
                 the number of times particular events occur during a daemon's  runtime.
                 In addition to these commands, ovs-vswitchd automatically logs coverage
                 counter values, at INFO level, when it detects that the  daemon's  main
                 loop takes unusually long to run.
          
                 Coverage counters are useful mainly for performance analysis and debug‐
                 ging.
          
                 coverage/show
                        Displays the averaged per-second rates for the last few seconds,
                        the  last  minute and the last hour, and the total counts of all
                        of the coverage counters.
          
             OPENVSWITCH TUNNELING COMMANDS
                 These commands query and modify OVS tunnel components. Ref  to  README-
                 native-tunneling.md for more info.
          
                 ovs/route/add ipv4_address/plen output_bridge [GW]
                        Adds  ipv4_address/plen  route  to  vswitchd routing table. out‐
                        put_bridge needs to be OVS bridge name.  This command is  useful
                        if OVS cached routes does not look right.
          
                 ovs/route/show
                        Print  all  routes  in  OVS  routing table, This includes routes
                        cached from system routing table and user configured routes.
          
                 ovs/route/del ipv4_address/plen
                        Delete ipv4_address/plen route from OVS routing table.
          
                 tnl/neigh/show
          
                 tnl/arp/show
                        OVS builds ARP cache by  snooping  are  messages.  This  command
                        shows ARP cache table.
          
                 tnl/neigh/set bridge ip mac
          
                 tnl/arp/set bridge ip mac
                        Adds  or  modifies  an  ARP cache entry in bridge, mapping ip to
                        mac.
          
                 tnl/neigh/flush
          
                 tnl/arp/flush
                        Flush ARP table.
          
                 tnl/egress_port_range [num1] [num2]
                        Set range for UDP source port used for UDP  based  Tunnels.  For
                        example  VxLAN.  If  case  of zero arguments this command prints
                        current range in use.
          
          OPENFLOW IMPLEMENTATION
                 This section documents aspects of OpenFlow for which the OpenFlow spec‐
                 ification requires documentation.
          
             Packet buffering.
                 The OpenFlow specification, version 1.2, says:
          
                        Switches  that  implement  buffering  are  expected  to  expose,
                        through documentation, both the amount of  available  buffering,
                        and the length of time before buffers may be reused.
          
                 Open  vSwitch  maintains  a separate set of 256 packet buffers for each
                 OpenFlow connection.  Any given packet buffer is preserved until it  is
                 referenced by an OFPT_FLOW_MOD or OFPT_PACKET_OUT request or for 5 sec‐
                 onds, whichever comes first.
          
          LIMITS
                 We believe these limits to be accurate as of this writing.  These  lim‐
                 its assume the use of the Linux kernel datapath.
          
                 ·      ovs-vswitchd  started  through  ovs-ctl(8)  provides  a limit of
                        65535 file descriptors.  The limits on the number of bridges and
                        ports  is decided by the availability of file descriptors.  With
                        the Linux kernel datapath, creation of a single bridge  consumes
                        three  file  descriptors  and adding a port consumes "n-handler-
                        threads" file descriptors per  bridge  port.   Performance  will
                        degrade  beyond  1,024  ports per bridge due to fixed hash table
                        sizing.  Other platforms may have different limitations.
          
                 ·      2,048 MAC learning entries per bridge,  by  default.   (This  is
                        configurable  via  other-config:mac-table-size in the Bridge ta‐
                        ble.  See ovs-vswitchd.conf.db(5) for details.)
          
                 ·      Kernel flows are limited only by memory available to the kernel.
                        Performance  will  degrade  beyond  1,048,576  kernel  flows per
                        bridge with a 32-bit kernel, beyond 262,144 with a  64-bit  ker‐
                        nel.  (ovs-vswitchd should never install anywhere near that many
                        flows.)
          
                 ·      OpenFlow flows are limited only by  available  memory.   Perfor‐
                        mance is linear in the number of unique wildcard patterns.  That
                        is, an OpenFlow table that contains many flows that all match on
                        the  same fields in the same way has a constant-time lookup, but
                        a table that contains many flows that match on different  fields
                        requires lookup time linear in the number of flows.
          
                 ·      255  ports per bridge participating in 802.1D Spanning Tree Pro‐
                        tocol.
          
                 ·      32 mirrors per bridge.
          
                 ·      15 bytes for the name of a port.  (This is a Linux kernel  limi‐
                        tation.)
          
          SEE ALSO
                 ovs-appctl(8),  ovsdb-server(1), INSTALL.Linux in the Open vSwitch dis‐
                 tribution.
          
          
          
          Open vSwitch                         2.5.1                     ovs-vswitchd(8)
          
          现金李逵劈鱼